Duo has integrated research themes on nutrition in some five areas. The first is food bioactivity (anti-inflammation, anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, anti-cancer, hypo-blood lipids etc) using whole foods, food ingredients, natural products, foods for health and functional foods, through in vitro studies, animal models and human clinical trials. The secondly is food safety evaluation, with an emphasis on the long term safety of foods. Third is the relationship between non-communicable diseases and habitual dietary intake. The fourth area is the evaluation of novel food and potential natural nutrient resources, through compositional and physiological studies. Finally, his work examines how nutrients, food ingredients and natural products influence the expression of select genes.